Infertility –

Blockages And Other Anatomical Problems Causes And Treatment Options

Structural defects in reproductive organs can stop the passage of sperm from the testis, where they develop, to the ejaculatory duct. Blockages result from birth defects or scar tissue formed after infection or surgery. Vasectomy, an elective sterilization procedure, prevents the flow of sperm by cutting and tying off the ends of the vas deferens, a tube that carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct.

Some experts believe that blocked and enlarged veins around the testes, called varicoceles, cause infertility by raising the temperature in the scrotum and decreasing sperm production. However, others discount the effect of varicoceles because they also are found in fertile men.

Treatment Options For Blockages And Other Anatomical Problems

  • Surgery – vasectomy reversal (vasovasostomy) is a microsurgical technique that involves removal of scarred sections and reconnection of the vas deferens so sperm can travel out of the epididymis and into the ejaculate. Epididymal repair (vasoepididymostomy) may be an option if vasovasostomy won’t work because there are no sperm present in the vas deferens. This surgery is used to remove obstructions in the epididymis caused by pressure from testicular fluids, leakage of sperm into surrounding tissues after a vasectomy, infections, trauma or congenital defects. Vasoepididymostomy restores the flow of semen by stitching the inner and outer layers of the vas directly to the epididymis and its inner tubule, at a point above an obstruction.